Hello in this lecture we’re going to continue on with the closing process with step four, the final step of the process which will be to close out the draws. Remember that the objective is to have the adjusted trial balance be converted to the post closing trial balance. adjusted trial balance is what we use to create the financial statements. And the difference between the adjusted trial balance and the post closing trial balance will be that we want to have all temporary accounts including draws revenue and expense accounts to be converted to zero and have all that be in the owner capital account meaning the owner capital account will now be including all these accounts underneath it crunched into basically one number, we’re going to do that with a four step process.
Hello in this presentation, we will be looking at a one step closing process. In other words, we will be closing out temporary accounts using one journal entry. There’s a few different ways that we can perform the closing process. And there’s benefits and cons to each way of doing it. The one step closing process is the simplest way to do it. And it’s also a way that we can imagine what is happening within the closing process as easily as possible a skill useful when considering what’s happening from time period to time period, and how the financial statements are working. So here we’re going to look at a one step closing process. Remember what the closing process is, it’s going to be a process at the end of the time period that we will be performing.
Hello in this section we will define the post closing trial balance. When seeing the post closing trial balance, it’s easiest to look at it in comparison to the adjusted trial balance and consider where we are at in the accounting cycle in the accounting process. When we see these terms such as the adjusted trial balance and post closing trial balance, as well as an unadjusted trial balance, we’re really talking about the same type of thing. We’re talking about a trial balance, meaning we’re going to have the accounts with balances in them. And we’re going to have the amounts related to them. And of course, the debits and the credits will always remain in balance. If it is a trial balance, no matter the name, whether it be just a trial balance on an adjusted trial balance and adjusted trial balance or a post closing trial balance.
Hello in this lecture we’re going to talk about the objectives of the closing process the closing process will happen after the financial statements have been created. So we will have done the journal entries where we will have compiled those journal entries into a trial balance, and then we will have made the financial statements. And then as of the end of the period in this case, we’re going to say as of December, when we move into the next time period, January, what we need to do is close out some of the temporary accounts those accounts including the income statement and the draws account so that we can start the new period from start in a similar way as if we were trying to see how many miles we could drive say in a month. If we wanted to Vince in December, and then see how many miles we’re going to drive in January of next year.
This presentation we will take a look at the tools needed in order to complete a statement of cash flows. to complete a statement of cash flows, we are typically going to need a comparative balance sheet that’s going to include a balance sheet from the prior period, whether that be the prior month or the prior year and a balance sheet from the current period, then we’re going to have to have an income statement. And then we’ll need some additional information in a book problem, it’ll typically give us some additional additional information often having to do with things like worth an equipment purchases, whether equipment purchases or equipment sales, were their investments in the company where their sales of stocks, what were the dividends within the company. In practice, of course, we would have to just know and recognize those types of areas where we might need more detail. And we would get that additional information with General Ledger we’d go into the general ledger, look at that added information. Now once we have this information, our major component we’re going to use is going to be the comparative balance sheet. That’s where we will start. So that comparative balance sheet is going to be used to make a worksheet such as this.
In this presentation, we will take a look at a basic outline for a statement of cash flows. In order to do this, we first want to give an idea of how the statement of cash flows will be generated. So we can think about these components of the statement of cash flows and where they come from. Typically, we will have a worksheet such as this that we will use in order to generate the statement of cash flows. That statement of cash flows, having three major components, operating activities, investing activities, and financing activities. Our goal here is going to be to fill out these three components and typically we will use a worksheet such as this on the left. The worksheet is just basically a comparative balance sheet that we have here that we’ve reformatted from a balance sheet to just a trial balance type format, a debit and credit type format. So you can see that we have our balance sheet accounts, and we are imbalanced by having the debits the positive and the credits be negative or debits. Minus the credits equaling zero, given it’s an indication that this period, the current period that we are working on, is in balance, the prior period, same thing. So we have two points in time for to balance sheet points the prior year, or period the prior year in this case and the current year. And then we just took the difference between these two columns. And if we have something that’s in balance, here, the debits minus the credits equals zero, something that’s in balance here, the debits minus the credits equals zero. And then we take the difference of each line item in these columns. And some of those differences, it too must add up to zero. So in essence, what we’re going to do in order to create the statement of cash flows is find a home for all these differences. And that’ll give us a cash flow, a concept of the cash flow statement. We’ll get into more detail on how to do that when we create the cash flow statement. But as we look at the outline, keep that in mind. So here’s going to be the basic outline for the state. cash flows, we’re going to have the operating activities. That’s going to include a list of inflows and outflows from the operating activities. And then we’re going to have the net cash provided by the operating activities. Now, this list of inflows and outflows for the operating activity will be the most extensive list because the operating activities are in relation to you can think of it as similar to the income statement.
In this presentation, we will calculate the bond price explaining how this can be done using present value formulas within Excel. Remember that the bonds is going to be a great tool for both accounting and finance to describe the present value calculation. So that’s why it’s going to be used. Oftentimes It has two cash flows related to it, one’s going to be the face amount of the bond that’s going to be due at the end of the term of the bond. In our case, it’s going to be two years semiannual or four time periods. And the other is the flow of interest. So bonds are a great example because they have the two types of present value problems that we need in one area. So even if you’re not in an area where you’re dealing with bonds all the time, they’re still going to be used and useful to understand present value types of calculations. So here we’ve got the bond is going to have one cash flow of 100,000 at the end of four periods or two years, and we need to figure out what the present value is in order to price it back here at your at time period zero. And then we have these four payments in terms of the annuity 4000. And we need to take those and present value them, we could take each period and present value each payment and present value it. But the easier thing to do is to present value, an annuity when it’s applicable and present value, the one amount when it’s applicable. And therefore think of that about these as two basically separate cash flows that we’re going to have to present value separately. So we can do this multiple different ways. And it just depends on what you’re what tools you have. And where you are, in order to know how to do it. What you want to know is just that there’s different tools to do it. Anytime someone uses a different tool. What are they doing the same thing? And and when can you apply these tools and what’s actually happening here. So that’s what’s actually happening. We’re present valuing this information.
In this presentation, we will take a look at present value formulas related to bonds. One of the reasons bonds is so important to accounting and finance is because they’re a good example of the term of present value of money. We’re trying to look for an equal measure of money, when we think of bonds and bonds is going to have this relationship between market rates and the stated rate, which helps us to kind of look through and figure out these types of concepts. So even if we don’t work with bonds, in other words, if we’re not planning on issuing bonds, or buying bonds, or knowing anything about bonds not being important to us, the time value of money is a very important concept and bonds is going to be a major tool to help us with that. Why is bonds so useful for learning time value of money, because there’s two types of cash flows with bonds meaning at the end of the time period, we typically are going to get the face amount of the bond that 100,000 similar to a note and then we’ve got the interest payments that are going to happen on a periodic To basis, and therefore we have these two different types of cash flows, that we can use two different formulas for, to think about how to equalize.
In this presentation, we will be taking a look at the allowance method for accounts receivable focusing in on the calculation of the allowance for doubtful accounts. There are two methods that can be used in order to calculate the allowance for doubtful accounts accounts. One being the percentage of accounts receivable, the other is the percentage of sales, we will take a look at them both and look at the pros and cons of them. First, we’re going to look at the accounts receivable method. We’re going to start off with the percentage of accounts receivable method for a few different reasons. One, it’s the one that’s most often tested. And two is the one that may be most often used in practice often making the most sense to people that are looking at the two methods. It’s also a bit more complicated. So when we’re looking at test questions, they typically would focus on this method in order to have a bit more complicated process to do the calculation.
In this presentation, we will take a look at a comparison between the allowance method and the direct write off method. When considering both the allowance method and the direct write off method, we are considering the accounts receivable account. Remember that the accounts receivable account represents some money that is owed to the company, typically from sales made in the past, on account haven’t yet received the funds for sales made in the past and therefore, the company is owed money. We see this amount on the trial balance in this case 1,000,001 91. We then want to know information about that, including who owes us that money. We can’t find that typically in the GL as we have a GL for every account the GL only giving us the information by date. Typically, we want to see that information also broken out in the subsidiary ledger saying who owes us this money.