Advanced financial accounting PowerPoint presentation. In this presentation, we will discuss translate financial statements of foreign subsidiary, get ready to account with advanced financial accounting, translate financial statements of foreign subsidiary. So we’ll go through the general process of the translation process for the revenue and expenses, the average exchange rate for the period covered by the statement is the rate that is generally going to be used. And again, this would make sense, because if we’re talking about the revenue and expenses, we can’t really pick one rate, because that is a statement of how the performance did over time from beginning to the end. And therefore we need to use some kind of rate that would be representative and it wouldn’t really make sense to use the rate at the end of the timeframe but possibly some average of it. So a single material transaction is translated using the rate in effect on the translation date. So then there could be an argument that could be made we could say okay, so We’re not going to use just one rate, like at the end of the time period like we’re using on the balance sheet generally, because that would make more sense on the balance sheet because it’s reported as of a point in time. But on the income statement, yeah, it makes more sense for us to use some rate that’s kind of reflective of the timeframe. So possibly we’ll use an average rate. But what if we have this really material type of transaction that’s really large transaction, maybe in that case, we should we should deviate from just an average rate and use the rate as of that point in time or like a historical rate at that point in time. assets, liabilities and equity. So now we’re talking about the balance sheet. So for the most part on the balance sheet, you would think all right, it would make more sense then for us to be using the current exchange rate, which would be as of the date of the balance sheet date. So which says as of the end of the time period, if we’re talking for the for 1231 income statements or financial statements for the year ended 1231 then we’re talking 1231. The end of the time period is when all the balance sheet accounts are reporting as Oh, As of that point in time, and therefore, for the most part, you would think that the current exchange rate, the rate as of that point in time would work. However, you can also think that the historical exchange rate might be used for some items, some, again, some kind of large items power, possibly for the property, plant and equipment.
Advanced financial accounting PowerPoint presentation. In this presentation we will discuss translation versus remeasurement. Get ready to account with advanced financial accounting, translation versus remeasurement methods to restate to foreign entities statements to US dollar. So the most straightforward methods can be translation of foreign entities functional currency statement to US dollars. So the translation is what we’ll use the most straightforward method when the entity statement is using the functional currency. So typically, if the if the entity is using the functional currency, and we need to translate it, then we’ll simply translate it from the functional currency to the US dollars. And then there’s remeasurement of foreign entities statement into its functional currency. So remeasurement means that the entity is running their bookkeeping in a currency that is not the functional currency. Right? So then we’re going to have to re measure we’re going to use this term re measure rather than translate the To the functional currency, so after we remeasure to the functional currency, after remeasurement statements need to be translated to the reporting currency if the functional currency is not the US dollar. So in other words, if we’re assuming, in this case, in the case of the remeasurement, or let’s say, we have an entity that we’re going to be consolidating a subsidiary entity in another country, and we’re in the US and we need to basically consolidate these data together in terms of US dollars at the end of the day, if the entity is using the functional currency as as their financial statements, their bookkeeping is in the functional currency, then we can simply use the term translate it to the US dollars, which will be the parent currency that we’re talking about here. If however, the foreign entity is having their books in some currency, that is not the functional currency, then what we’re going to have to do is re measure it. We want to use remeasurement To the functional currency, we want to make remeasure at first to the functional currency rather than straight to the US dollar. So we’re going to use remeasure to the functional currency. And after we re measure to the functional currency, if the functional currency is the US dollar, then then we should be able to stop there. That’s okay. If however, the functional currency is not the US dollar, then we would have to go from the functional currency and then translate to the US dollar. So we’ll talk a little bit more about that as we go. So let’s think about translation.
In this presentation we’re going to talk about valuation of business entities when there’s going to be an external expansion. In other words, a merger or consolidation, get ready to act because it’s time to account with advanced financial accounting. We’re continuing on with our discussion of external expansion. That means we’re have two separate entities that are going to be combining in some way shape or form. The two types that we want to keep in mind at this point is the acquisition of assets and the acquisition of stocks. So if the acquisition of assets we have one company acquired another assets using negotiation with management, so that means you have two separate entities and one entity is basically going to be purchasing the assets of the other entity versus the acquisition of stock, where we have a majority of outstanding voting shares is generally required, unless other factors result in the gaining of control. So in other words, you have two entities, one entity in essence buying a controlling share or controlling ownership over 50% typically 51 and above. Have another entity. So from an accounting perspective, then the question is, well, how are we going to value the assets and liabilities. Now when we think about the assets and liabilities, we may have to use an appraisal oftentimes, in order to do so because remember, if you’re talking about some assets, they might may be on a fair value method, because you might be talking about cash or something like that, or possibly stocks or investments in that way, that may be easy to value with a market method. However, if you’re talking about things like property, plant and equipment, then it’s going to be more difficult to know what the value is. That’s the problem because there hasn’t been a market transaction for that exact same piece of equipment for some time.
This presentation we’re going to take a closer look at external business expansion, which includes things like mergers and business combinations, get ready to act, because it’s time to account with advanced financial accounting. Before we move into the external expansion, you want to give a review and keep your mind on what our focus is we’re talking about a business that is expanding. When we think of it about expansion, we can break that expansion into internal and external expansion. So we have a business expanding into new areas do segments, we can think of it as an internal or external expansion. In a prior presentation, we talked a little bit more on the internal expansion, in which case you might have a situation where a parent creates a subsidiary or a parent basically just creates another division possibly, and expands in that format. Now we’re going to be going to the external expansion, in which case we’re talking about two entities. So we have two separate legal entities that in some or two separate entities in some case in some way, shape reform are coming together. So now we’re going to have an expansion where we have an external expansion. So if we’re thinking of thinking about this, from the from the standpoint of one company, we’re thinking about ourselves as one company and we are expanding, then we’re thinking about the expansion externally, that we are going to be combining in some way shape or form with another company. Now, the format and form in which that combination can take place can be various we can have various forms of that combination, it could result in a parent subsidiary type of relationship, or it could result in the parent basically consuming that another company and bringing them into the overarching parent company.
Hello in this section we will define the post closing trial balance. When seeing the post closing trial balance, it’s easiest to look at it in comparison to the adjusted trial balance and consider where we are at in the accounting cycle in the accounting process. When we see these terms such as the adjusted trial balance and post closing trial balance, as well as an unadjusted trial balance, we’re really talking about the same type of thing. We’re talking about a trial balance, meaning we’re going to have the accounts with balances in them. And we’re going to have the amounts related to them. And of course, the debits and the credits will always remain in balance. If it is a trial balance, no matter the name, whether it be just a trial balance on an adjusted trial balance and adjusted trial balance or a post closing trial balance.
In this presentation we will take a look at receivables. The major two types of receivables and the ones we will be concentrating on here are accounts receivable and notes receivable. There are other types of receivables we may see on the financial statements or trial balance or Chart of Accounts, including receivables, such as rent receivable, and interest receivable. Anything that has a receivable, it basically means that someone owes us something in the future. We’re going to start off talking about accounts receivable that’s going to be the most common most familiar most used type of receivable and that means something someone, some person some company, some customer typically owes us money for a transaction happening in the past, typically some type of sales transaction. So if we record the sales transaction, that would typically be the way accounts receivable would start within the financial statements, meaning If we made a sale, we would credit the revenue account, we’ll call it sales. If we sell inventory, it would be called sales. If we sold something else, it might be called fees earned, or just revenue or just income, increasing income with a credit, and then the debit not going to cash. But going to accounts receivable.
In this presentation, we’re going to introduce the internal controls related specifically to cash, cash internal control goals, these are going to be the objectives of the internal control system over cash, we want to have the cash handling separate from the record keeping. So whoever is handling the cash, we would like to have them not be the same person doing the record keeping. And therefore we have that separation of duties. We have the person that is entering the data, not having as much of an incentive to steal the cash because they’re not the ones handling the cash, the people handling the cash, know that if they do steal it, the record keeping should pick that up, and they are a separate person. cash receipts are deposited to the bank. We want to make sure that the cash receipts are going to the bank as soon as possible, hopefully on a daily basis, so that we’re not actually emulating cash. We don’t want a cash to be piling up, because if it is then we have a greater risk of theft to happen and greater loss if that does happen.
In this presentation we will discuss the concept of lower of cost or market. We will define this concept first and then see it and talk about how it would apply to inventory. The definition of lower of cost or market according to fundamental accounting principles, while 22nd edition is required method to report inventory at market replacement cost when that market cost is lower than recorded cost. So, what we’re saying here is we have we’re talking about the inventory, of course, and we’re saying that we have to record it at the replacement cost. When that replacement cost that market cost is lower than the recorded cost, what we actually purchased it for. So this looks like a confusing type of definition. However, it’s pretty straightforward. What we’re applying here is going to be the conservative principle meaning that if our inventory has declined in value, we have to record it at the lower cost. We don’t want to be overstating our income mentoree obviously regulations are very concerned about us overstating something, when we’re talking about an asset, and making the financial statements look better than they would rather than understating it.