## Premium Amortization & Interest

In this presentation, we will discuss the amortization of a bond premium and the recording of interest expense on bonds. This is going to be our starting point. This is the initial transaction in order to get the bonds on the books. Here’s our data down here we’ve got the number of years we’ve got the face amount of the bonds, we’ve got the issue price 270, we see that the interest on the market rate is different than the contract rate. The result then is that cash is going to be increased by the 217. The bonds payable went on the books for the face amount of the bond, the amount that’s on the bonds of the 240, which is a liability. And then we have the premium being the difference increasing the premium here by the 30. The 240 plus 230 is going to be equal to the 270,000 carrying amount book value of the bonds. Now we’re going to go through the process of recording the interest we can see that this is going to have 15 years bonds, we’re going to pay the bonds semi annually. So we’re going to have to record the interest on them. And we’re gonna have to reduce this premium in some way as well. Remember, at the end of the bonds, we’re not going to pay back the 270. We’re only going to pay back 240. So how are we going to get rid of that the premium on the bond and why are we going to do it in the way we will. We’ll start off by amortize in the premium using a straight line the method. Note that the effective method is the preferred method for amortize in a premium for generally accepted accounting principles, but the straight line method will be appropriate in some cases, if the difference is going to be a non material. And the straight line method is a simplified method and it’s easy for us to see what is going on. So we’ll start off with the straight line method.

## Bond Issued at Premium

In this presentation, we will take a look at the journal entries related to issuing a bond at a premium. When considering the journal entry for a bond, remember what can change and what is the same for a bond. When we think about a bond, it’s already been printed, we know the amount of the bond, the interest on the bond, the maturity date of the bond, these are already set. So if we’re making a negotiation with the bond after it had already been printed, then we can’t change the face amount. We can’t change the interest due dates. What can we change in order to negotiate and make a sales price on the bond, we can change the amount that we issue it for. So keep that in mind. Whenever you think about these bond problems. That’s the thing that’s going to differ from a bond to a note. The thing that changes when we want to loan is the interest rate. The thing that changes when we want to issue a bond that’s already been made is going to be the amount we receive For the bond being different than the face amount of the bond if there’s a difference in the market rate and the contract rate. So in this example, we’re saying that we issued a bond. Now note that when we think about the issuance of the bond, just like a note, we often have more information than we really need. And that can be a little bit confusing for us.

## Note Receivable Example

In this presentation we will discuss notes receivable, giving some examples of journal entries related to notes receivable and a trial balance so we can see the effect and impact on the accounts as well as the effect on net income of these transactions. first transaction, we’re gonna have 120 day 7% note giving the company EMI and extension on past due AR or accounts receivable of 6200. When considering book problems and real life problems, one of our challenges is to interpret what is actually happening what is going on, which party are we in this transaction in? Therefore, how are we going to record this transaction when we’re looking at notes receivable? A common problem with notes receivable is the conversion of an accounts receivable to a notes receivable. So in this case, that’s what we have. We have an accounts receivable here that includes an amount of Due to us by this particular company in AI so these are our books, we have a receivable people owing us money for prior transactions goods or services provided in the past and they owe us in total, all customers owe us 41,521 this customer in particular owes us 6200 of this amount in the receivable that could be found not in the general ledger which would give backup of transactions by date.

## Notes Receivable

In this presentation, we will take a look at notes receivable. We’re first going to consider the components of the notes receivable. And then we’ll take a look at the calculation of maturity and some interest calculations. When we look at the notes receivable, it’s important to remember that there are two components two people, two parties, at least to the note, that seems obvious. And in practice, it’s pretty clear who the two people are and what the note is and what the two people involved in the note our doing. However, when we’re writing the notes, or just looking at the notes as a third party that’s considering the note that has been documented. Or if we’re taking a look at a book problem, it’s a little bit more confusing to know which of the two parties are we talking about who’s making the note who is going to be paid at the end of the note time period? We’re considering a note receivable here, meaning we’re considering ourselves to be the business who is going to be receiving money. into the time period, meaning the customer is making a promise, the customer is in essence, we’re thinking of making a note in order to generate that promise, that will then be a promise to pay us in the future.

## Receivables Introduction

In this presentation we will take a look at receivables. The major two types of receivables and the ones we will be concentrating on here are accounts receivable and notes receivable. There are other types of receivables we may see on the financial statements or trial balance or Chart of Accounts, including receivables, such as rent receivable, and interest receivable. Anything that has a receivable, it basically means that someone owes us something in the future. We’re going to start off talking about accounts receivable that’s going to be the most common most familiar most used type of receivable and that means something someone, some person some company, some customer typically owes us money for a transaction happening in the past, typically some type of sales transaction. So if we record the sales transaction, that would typically be the way accounts receivable would start within the financial statements, meaning If we made a sale, we would credit the revenue account, we’ll call it sales. If we sell inventory, it would be called sales. If we sold something else, it might be called fees earned, or just revenue or just income, increasing income with a credit, and then the debit not going to cash. But going to accounts receivable.

## Cash Disbursements Internal Controls

In this presentation, we’re going to talk about Cash Disbursements, internal controls. Now we’re going to talk about a voucher system for the payment process. But before we get too into the voucher system, note that the systems will change depending on the type of organization and what industry we’re in and how large the organization is. So if we just have a small organization, then we probably just want to have some internal controls for the owner of the company, the owner, being a key component of the internal control system and having a lot more oversight over many of the things that happened. For example, for the payments that happen, we may have someone that requests something on an employee that wants to request a payment may even you know, enter the payment into this system. However, we want to make sure that the owner still has some control over such as the cheque signing.