Advanced financial accounting. In this presentation we’re going to discuss the consolidation process for less than 100% owned subsidiary. In other words at the end of this, we’ll be able to understand some of the major differences in the consolidation process from a company that was 100% owned. In other words, the parent owns 100% of the subsidiary and one in which the parent owns some other percent some stock share and percent other than 100%. Get ready to account with advanced financial accounting when there is a controlling interest but less than 100% owned interest in a subsidiary. In other words, the parent company owns something other than 100% of the common stock something over 51% still having a controlling interest still makes sense to do consolidated financial statements, because it’s useful to see the assets minus the liabilities, the net assets that the parent has control over, even if they don’t have claim over them. The performance based on you know, the net assets that they have control over.
Advanced financial accounting. In this presentation we’re going to talk about the consolidation process with a differential we’re going to look at the component parts with a simple example a simple calculation, you’re ready to account with advanced financial accounting, consolidation with differential example. So here’s going to be the basic scenario for many of the practice problems we will be looking with. We have P and S, there’s going to be a parent subsidiary relationship in which we will be making consolidated financial statements. How did this situation take place what constituted this situation, we’re going to say that in this example, P is purchasing the stocks of S. So notice they’re purchasing the stocks of s and therefore negotiating the stock price, which we’re going to say is $1,000 here. Now to simplify this example, you first want to think about this as p purchasing 100% of the stock of s for $1,000. And then once they have control, anything over 51% would then be controlled.
Advanced financial accounting. In this presentation we’re going to talk about the concepts of direct and indirect control. If you’re ready to account with advanced financial accounting, we want to consider these concepts within the context of financial statements and consolidation. So you’ll recall that when we have consolidated financial statements, the idea is to put two financial statements together when one company has basically control over another company that being defined typically by having more than 51% interest because if you have more than 51%, then you have basically a voting share for you to vote on anything, then of course, you would win the vote at that point in time. So let’s consider then direct control and indirect control direct control when one company has a majority of another company’s stock common stock. So that would be a situation where you got a and b, one company has a majority interest over 51% control is pretty easy to see at that point. When you start to get into indirect control. This can get more complicated things can get more confusing here. So indirect control, one company’s common stock is owned by one or more other companies that are under common control. So this can get a lot more detailed structure in terms of what is going to constitute control. So for example, if we have direct control, then you have just simply a parent subsidiary type of relationship. And, you know, the parent has more than 51% of the subsidiary, interest common stock. So and that could happen if we have to, we could still have a little bit more complexity here, where we have two subsidiaries, right. But they’re both going to be consolidated in this case, because there’s 75% over 51% direct control is parent over as one direct control over as to here because it’s over the 51%. So both of these cases would be direct control.
Advanced financial accounting. In this presentation we’re going to talk about a consolidation for a non wholly owned subsidiary. So in other words, we have a parent subsidiary relationship, but the parent doesn’t own 100% of the outstanding common stock of the subsidiary but something other than 100%. In other words, over 51% controlling interest less than 100% get ready to account with advanced financial accounting. Non controlling interest often will be represented NCI non controlling interest. So notice if we have a parent subsidiary relationship we’re talking about there is some controlling interest, the controlling interest is the interest that’s going to be over 51%. However, if we don’t have 100% ownership, then we have the amount that’s not in control and that of course is going to be the non controlling interest. So non controlling interest. NCI controlling interest is needed for consolidation. Obviously, if we’re going to consolidate this thing, that means typically that A parent has some controlling interest over 51% a 100% is not needed. So 100% of ownership, in other words, by one parent to the other is not necessary for a consolidation to take place control is necessary, which is typically over 51% less than 100% ownership will result in a non controlling shareholder, those other than the parent.
Advanced financial accounting. In this presentation we’re going to take a look at the usefulness of consolidated financial statements. In other words, consolidated financial statements taking two or more companies where there’s a parent subsidiary relationship, putting them together representing financial statements as if those entities were one entity. What are the pros and cons of using consolidated financial statements? Get ready to account with advanced financial accounting idea of consolidated financial statements? In other words, why did we come up with the consolidated financial statements? So remember, we’re talking about a situation where there’s a parent subsidiary relationship, there’s a controlling interest, we have one company that has a controlling interest in over 51 interest in the other company. And then we’ve come up with this concept of showing the Consolidated Financial Statements showing the entity the parent and the subsidiary entities of which there’s a controlling interest as if they were one entity. Why do that? So when company creates or gets controlled Another company, that’s going to be the scenario we have. So we have a parent subsidiary relationship due to that fact due to one company having control than another company. You can think of that, of course in a stock situation owning for more than 51%. The result is a parent subsidiary relationship. So if we just have the two entities, it would look something like this.
This presentation we’re going to take a look at the consolidation process for a 100% owned subsidiary. In other words, when we’re thinking about one company owning another company in advanced financial accounting, we’re usually looking at the situation and spending most of our time where we have some kind of consolidation process. So we want to Vin take the consolidation process and look at it in levels of complexity. So we’re going to start with a level of complexity, that’s going to be an easier setting where we will have 100% owned subsidiary, and then we’ll go from there and add more complications to it. Get ready to account with advanced financial accounting to ownership and control and prior presentations, we took a look at different methods based on different levels of ownership and control. We said in general, if we had zero to 20%, we use the carried value and then 20 percents kind of an arbitrary number, but if we’re over that amount, we’re really looking at the term of significant influence it for over the 20% from 20 to 50% then The assumption is that we would be using the equity method because the assumption would be if over 20% unless spoken otherwise, unless some unreal, some reason, otherwise, we would then have this significant influence and therefore be justified to use the equity method. And then if you’re over 51%, then you may have the consolidation. Now, when we think about these two methods that they carried value in the equity method, we can basically explain those as we go, you know, if you got anything from zero to 20%, then we could just basically say, yeah, then you fall into this category, let’s talk about the accounting in general.
Advanced financial accounting PowerPoint presentation. In this presentation we will discuss the consolidation process and a situation where the subsidiary issues stock dividends we have stock default dividends issued by the subsidiary what will be the effect on the consolidation process get ready to account with advanced financial accounting. We’re talking about a consolidation process where the subsidiary then issued stock dividends. So we have stock dividends are issued to all common stockholders proportionally, therefore, the relative interest of the controlling and non controlling stockholders is not changed. So that relative interest isn’t changed, so we don’t have to worry about that which is nice. The carrying amount on the parents books is also not changed. So we’re not going to have to change anything on the books of the parent with basically an adjustment to the investment account using you know, typically the equity method, which is nice stockholders equity accounts for the subsidiary do change. So we do have a change to the stock There’s equity on the subsidiary, but total stockholders equity does not. So in other words, if we take stockholders equity as a whole, there’s no change there, even though there’s changes within the stockholders equity of the subsidiary. So we’re here we’re going to say this stock dividends represent a permanent capitalization of retained earnings. That’s basically what is happening, permanent capitalization of the retained earnings.
Advanced financial accounting a PowerPoint presentation. In this presentation, we will discuss forward exchange contracts get ready to account with advanced financial accounting, forward exchange contracts. Now we’re going to go over some of the components of the foreign exchange contracts here, we’ll go into them on a lot more detail as we work through practice problems related to the forward exchange contracts. But just to visualize the basic kind of layout of a foreign exchange contract as you think about these items, and there’ll be a lot more concrete once we look at practice problems, we’re basically have a setup where we’re going to be working with a bank or a dealer, typically a bank, and we’re going to be setting up a foreign exchange contract which is basically going to say, we have a receivable and payable on the books at this point in time and we’re either going to put the receivable or the payable that is going to be due to us or something that we will pay in foreign currency at the end of the time period. Whereas the other side the receivable or the payable, the other side that’s not in foreign currency will be in US dollars. In other words, we We will determine the amount that will that we’re talking about. And then we’ll use an exchange rate which we’ll talk a little bit more about the exchange rate that we will use to value it in today’s dollars will put either the receivable or the payable in US dollars and either the receivable or the payable and foreign dollars as of this point in time. And then as time changes, as the rate of the foreign currency changes, then that could result in the difference between, you know, what we thought the value would be, at the point in time we went into the forward contract between the US dollar and the foreign currency as that difference changes over time that could result in basically a gain or loss.
In this presentation we’re going to talk about valuation of business entities when there’s going to be an external expansion. In other words, a merger or consolidation, get ready to act because it’s time to account with advanced financial accounting. We’re continuing on with our discussion of external expansion. That means we’re have two separate entities that are going to be combining in some way shape or form. The two types that we want to keep in mind at this point is the acquisition of assets and the acquisition of stocks. So if the acquisition of assets we have one company acquired another assets using negotiation with management, so that means you have two separate entities and one entity is basically going to be purchasing the assets of the other entity versus the acquisition of stock, where we have a majority of outstanding voting shares is generally required, unless other factors result in the gaining of control. So in other words, you have two entities, one entity in essence buying a controlling share or controlling ownership over 50% typically 51 and above. Have another entity. So from an accounting perspective, then the question is, well, how are we going to value the assets and liabilities. Now when we think about the assets and liabilities, we may have to use an appraisal oftentimes, in order to do so because remember, if you’re talking about some assets, they might may be on a fair value method, because you might be talking about cash or something like that, or possibly stocks or investments in that way, that may be easy to value with a market method. However, if you’re talking about things like property, plant and equipment, then it’s going to be more difficult to know what the value is. That’s the problem because there hasn’t been a market transaction for that exact same piece of equipment for some time.
This presentation we’re going to talk about forms of business combinations, which is basically external expansion, two types of entities that are going to be related in some way, shape or form, get ready to act because it’s time to account with advanced financial accounting, forms of business combinations. Now remember, we’re talking about expansion. Here, we’re thinking about expansion. We’ve got the two categories, we’ve got the internal expansion and external expansion. We’re considering here, the external expansion, we have an organization that now wants to expand and they’re going to be consolidated in some way or have two separate entities that will be combining. So now we’re talking about two separate legal entities typically separate legal entities that are now going to be combined in some way shape or forms. The forms of business combinations can be the statutory merger, the statutory consolidation, and the stock acquisition. So if you think about, in other words to separate legal entities and say, Alright, well how can these two separate legal entities be combined in some type of way, you can imagine some different Kind of scenarios in which that could take place. So and when you’re imagining those different types of scenarios, you’re going to be thinking about, okay, well, what’s going to be the key factor here, it’s going to be the controlling interest. So what’s going to be a situation where you had two separate legal entities, and now they’re they’re going to be have some controlling relationship, which could be that they’re combined together under one entity at some point or they are having a parent subsidiary type of relationship, in which case the control would be over the 50%. So that control concept is what you want to keep in mind here.